Civil War technology and innovation helped to expedite change throughout the nation. The exodus of available men into the armies shifted an agrarian economy to one based on mechanization. The war encouraged wide-scale industrial expansion. Soldiers needed to be clothed, fed, and provided arms and ammunition.
Economic and social differences between the two areas—the South and the North—has been noted as one of the causes of the Civil War. The South was primarily an agricultural economy in which cotton was the major crop, whereas the North was more populated and industrialized with textile mills, iron and steel industries, coal and lumber production, and railroads.
Of the nearly 9 million people in the South about one third were slaves, many of whom worked the cotton fields, compared to 22 million people in the North. Also, the North had about 110,000 manufacturing plants, while the South had 20,631. The South had obtained much of its railroad rails from the North, along with replacement machine parts for train locomotives, ships, and small river craft. In short, the North had overpowering manpower, financial and commercial resources. However, Civil War technology changed the local landscape.
Although the Civil War created no new industries, existing technologies were improved; some technologies were even innovative. Civil war technology increased foodstuffs production, medical care, and better and quicker transportation and communication. Civil War inventions and improvements on inventions, such as the telegraph, anesthesia, and firearms became necessities for battle; availability of these items in a timely manner was advantageous for successful military campaigns.
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